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  1. Version 1.0


    This is the Single Player Hand of Nod building in gmax/renx format originally released by Aircraftkiller years ago who got it from Westwood. It works without any adjustments, just plunge it on the map, export and enjoy playing it
  2. Introduction Renegade uses a form of rigid body dynamics to simulate a wide variety of vehicles. All of the geometric characteristics of a vehicle are determined directly from a model which is exported from 3ds-max. For example, the number, placement, and behavior of any wheels in the vehicle is determined by the set of “bones” in the model. Many wheel configurations can be defined by the model: front-wheel drive, four-wheel steering, all-wheel drive, tank tracks, etc can all be set up. Parameters such as the mass, engine strength, and suspension stiffness are set in the Renegade level editor. Balance The first thing to do is to position your vehicle model such that its center of mass is at the origin in MAX. In the X-Y plane, the CM (center of mass) should usually be placed exactly at the centroid of all of the wheels in the vehicle. If the CM behind this point, the vehicle will lean backwards on its suspension, if it is in front of this point, it will lean forward, etc. In the Z axis, the CM should be placed some distance below the center of the object to help prevent tipping over when turning corners. Collision Detection (WorldBox) As is the case with all objects in Renegade, you can use separate meshes for projectile collision detection and physical collision detection. In the case of vehicles you have to use a single OBBox named "WorldBox" for physical collision detection. (Note: physical collision detection is used when the object is moving in the world, projectile collision detection is used when the code is determining whether bullets hit the vehicle). For projectile collision detection, just use some representative meshes from your model. The WorldBox OBBox must be linked to the origin of the vehicle, and be aligned with the world axes. It should also be as small as possible while still containing the wheels and bulk of the body of the vehicle. The physics code in renegade collides with objects in a buffer zone near the surface of the worldbox so it should not completely contain the model. Below is a screenshot of a WorldBox. Note how the WorldBox does not extend all the way to the front, top or back of the vehicle. WorldBox checklist · It should be named exactly "WorldBox" (or "WorldBox.00" when part of an LOD model) · It should only exist in the top LOD of your vehicle · It should be set up to export as an OBBox · It should be Hidden · It should have its Physical and Camera collision settings enabled · It should be the only object in the vehicle model with Physical and Camera collision enabled · It should be as small as possible while still containing the wheel contact patches in their initial position (more on this later). Wheels Wheels are defined by adding bones with a particular naming convention into your model. All vehicles, including VTOL aircraft, have wheels. At the bare minimum, there must be two bones per wheel; one to define the contact point of the wheel and one to define the center of rotation of the wheel. The code will use the pivot points of the wheel bones to determine the following things: the initial position of the wheel, the radius of the wheel, the axis that the suspension travels along, and the axis that the wheel rotates about. The two basic bones needed by each wheel are the "WheelP" (wheel position) bone, and the "WheelC" (center) bone. Below is a view of a wheel from the Humm-Vee model (with the WheelP bone selected). Note that the z-axis points along the direction of travel of the suspension and the x-axis points forward. Also, the pivot point of the WheelP bone must be contained inside the world-box. The initial position of all wheels should be at their extreme topmost point; imagine that the vehicle has just fallen off a skyscraper and landed directly on its wheels. Attached to the wheel position bone, you need a bone which defines the center of rotation of the wheel; the WheelC bone. Below is a view of a wheel with both bones set up. Again, the important axis is the z-axis, it points along the axis of rotation of the wheel; in the "Top" viewport in Max, the z-axis should be pointing down your monitor (for all four wheels). The graphical representation of the wheel is then attached to the WheelC bone and will rotate and translate as the vehicle is simulated. The simulation pays no attention to the graphical representation of the wheel or even whether it exists or not. The hierarchical linkage for a simple wheel should look like the one below. Note that the WheelC bone is attached to the WheelP bone; not the other way around. The `E` at the end of each of the names above is a flag signifies that this particular wheel applies the engine force at its contact point. Through this naming convention you can create four-wheel drive, front-wheel drive, or rear-wheel drive wheels. Other flags that are available include: · S - The wheel will turn when the vehicle changes its steering parameter. · I - The wheel will turn in the opposite direction of the vehicle`s steering parameter (rear wheel steering). · E - The wheel will exert the engine force at its contact point · L - The wheel is part of the left track of a tracked vehicle · R - The wheel is part of the right track of a tracked vehicle · F - The wheel is "fake"; it will graphically move with the vehicle but no forces are computed. The complete naming convention for a wheel bone is below. The name always starts with the word `Wheel`, followed by a single character and a two digit number (e.g. WheelP00). Following the digits, any of the above flags can be added. Wheel {P,C,T,F} {00} [E] [L] [R] [F] Here are some examples of valid wheel bone names: · WheelP00ES - The contact point of wheel 00 which has the engine force and steering applied to it · WheelC05 - The rotation axis of wheel 05 which only exerts a suspension force and rolls with the vehicle Advanced Wheel Settings You may notice that there are two more types of wheel bones that have not been described yet. These bones can be used to create wheels whose suspension moves in a manner more complex than simply translating along the z-axis of the WheelP bone. First I`ll show an example of a translational constraint using a WheelT bone. This example is from the front wheel of the Nod Recon Bike: The presence of the WheelT bone in a wheel hierarchy causes the wheel to translate along the Z-axis of the WheelT bone rather than the contact point bone. This is used for the front tire of the Nod Recon Bike. The rear wheel of a Recon Bike rotates along an arm. This can be accomplished by using a WheelF bone. Below is a picture of that situation. The WheelF bone will be rotated about its Y-axis to maintain contact between the wheel and the ground (see the picture for how to set it up). This is probably the most complex type of wheel to create... Look at the Nod Recon Bike for reference. Wheel Checklist · Each wheel should have a bone named WheelPxx and WheelCxx (where xx is a two digit number) · All wheel bones should have all W3D options disabled except for Export Transform · The wheels should be positioned at their extreme topmost position (smashed into the vehicle) and their contact points must be contained inside the world box of the vehicle. · The hierarchy should look like this: Origin->WheelP->WheelC->Graphical Wheel · The Z axis of all WheelP bones should point along the direction of travel of the suspension · The X axis of all WheelP bones should point towards the front of the vehicle (direction of rolling) · The Z axis of all WheelC bones should point along the axis of rotation of the wheel (typically down in the Top viewport) · All wheel bones should have their flags set (append an `E` to the wheels that are attached to the engine, append an `S` to the wheels that steer, etc) Turrets Vehicles can have turrets which can fire weapons. The turret aiming motion is generated by the game code as long as certain bones are present in the model. There are three types of bones involved in controlling a turret. The `Turret` bone will be rotated to set the turret`s `heading`. The `Barrel` bone will be rotated to set the tilt of the weapon. And the `Muzzle` bone will be used as the location to create projectiles from. Below is a picture of a the turret from the GDI Mammoth Tank: In the above picture, you can see that there are several muzzle bones. There can be up to two MuzzleA bones and up to two MuzzleB bones. The `A` bones are used for the primary weapon of the vehicle and the `B` bones are used for the secondary weapon of the vehicle. All of the bones follow the convention that their axes should be aligned with the world axes; Z is up, X points towards the front of the vehicle, Y points to the left of the vehicle. If you create your boxes in the `Top` viewport, they will be oriented in this fashion automatically. One improvement over the linkage shown above would be to attach the V_Barrels mesh as a child of their Muzzle bones because the game engine automatically applies a recoil to the muzzle bone (attaching them in that way would cause the meshes to recoil when the weapon is fired). Turret Checklist · The model should contain a `Turret` bone, a `Barrel` bone, and one or more muzzle bones (up to two MuzzleA and two MuzzleB bones) · The bones should be connected in the hierarchy shown above. · Visible meshes in the model should attach to the appropriate bones so that they move when the game logic controls the turret (i.e. the turret mesh should be attached to the turret bone so that it will rotate properly) · All of the bones should have their pivot points aligned with the world axes. · All bones should have Export Transform enabled and Export Geometry disabled. Engine Special Effects VTOL vehicles can control bones to display engine effects. Here are some examples of engine effects: · The flame on the Orca engine lengthens when the vehicle accelerates or climbs (EngineFlame) · The Orca engine rotates forward and back as the vehicle accelerates or decelerates (EngineAngle) · The rotors on helecopters spin when they are in flight (Rotor) Any bone present in the model which starts with the name "EngineFlame" will translate along its Z-axis along with the vehicle`s acceleration. Any bone present which starts with the name "EngineAngle" will rotate about its Z-axis. In the screenshot below, the EngineAngle bone for one of the Orca engines is selected. Below it is the EngineFlame bone and not shown is a skin which has vertices attached to both bones and stretches as the EngineFlame translates. Helicopter vehicles can use the EngineAngle bone to tilt their rotors as they fly forwards and backwards. In addition, they can contain `Rotor` bones which will spin about their Z-axis when in flight. The parameters for how much these bones rotate and translate are all controlled through settings in the level editor. Engine Effects Checklist · "EngineAngle" bones will rotate about their Z axis · "EngineFlame" bones will translate along their Z axis · "Rotor" bones will constantly spin about their Z axis while the object is in flight Vehicle Damage As a vehicle becomes damaged, the game code can un-hide particular bones in your model. This can be used to show damage by attaching emitters to those bones since emitters in the model will start emitting when the bone they are attached to becomes un-hidden. There is support for three stages of damage, activated when the model reaches 25%, 50%, and 75% damage. When the model loses 25% of its health, all bones whose names begin with DAMAGE25 will be un-hidden. Once the object has lost 50% of its health, all bones whose names begin with DAMAGE50 will also become un-hidden. And when it has lost 75%, the DAMAGE75 bones will un-hide. Physics Parameters All of the actual physics parameters are controlled through the level editor. When creating a vehicle, the first thing you have to do is choose the physics model that it will use. There are four main physics models for vehicles: WheeledVehicle, TrackedVehicle, Motorcycle, and VTOLVehicle. Parameters common to all vehicles · Mass - the mass of the vehicle · GravScale - a scale factor that is applied to the gravitational force on the vehicle, normally should be 1.0. · Elasticity - not currently used. · AerodynamicDragCoefficient - controls the amount of drag. · Spring Constant - spring constant for the suspension (even VTOL vehicles have a suspension) · Damping Constant - damping in the suspension springs · Spring Length - suspension length, wheels start at their initial position and can translate down this far · Traction Multiplier - scales the amount of traction available to the vehicle · Lateral Moment Arm - length of the rotational moment arm for lateral forces at the tire contact patches. this lets us fake the lean of the vehicle when turning without having to adjust the W3D model. · TractiveMoment Arm - length of the rotational moment arm for tractive forces at the tire contact patches. This lets us control how much the vehicle "dives" when it brakes and how much it leans back when accelerating. · EngineFlameLength - if the vehicle has an "EngineFlame" bone, this controls how far that bone will translate. Since this parameter is available to all vehicles (not just the Orca), we could create things like Recon Bikes and cars that have a flame emitting out of their engine. Parameters specific to ground vehicles · MaxEngineTorque - this is the torque that the engine can output. For tracked vehicles we don`t have a sophisticated engine simulation; this torque is simply divided between the wheels and applied (also scaled by user input) · EngineTorqueCurveFilename - this is the engine torque curve (relates torque to engine RPM). These curves are created with the "SimpleGraph" tool · Gear Count - number of gears in the transimission · GearRatio[0-6] - transmission gear ratios · FinalDriveGearRaio - gear ratio in the differential · DriveTrainInertia - inertia in the drive train components · ShiftUpRpms - point at which the code shifts into a higher gear · ShiftDownRpms - point at which the code shifts down to a lower gear · MaxSteeringAngle - maximum angle of the steering tires · LeanK0 - internal torsional spring constant for motorcycle "balancing" · LeanK1 - internal torsional damping constant for motorcycle "balancing" Parameters specific to VTOL vehicles · MaxHorizontalAcceleration - acceleration of the vehicle in the X-Y plane · MaxVerticalAcceleration - acceleration of the vehicle along the Z axis · MaxFuselagePitch - angle that the vehicle pitches when acclerating forward · MaxFuselageRoll - angle that the vehicle rolls when strafing or turning · PitchControllerGain - spring constant for the pitch controller · PitchControllerDamping - damping constant for the pitch controller · RollControllerGain - spring constant for the roll controller · RollControllerDamping - damping constant for the roll controller · MaxYawVelocity - how fast the vehicle can spin · YawControllerGain - how fast the vehicle reaches its MaxYawVelocity · RotorSpeed - how fast the `ROTOR` bones should spin · RotorAcceleration - acceleration of the `ROTOR` bones · RotorDeceleration - deceleration of the `ROTOR` bones
  3. Overview- Make sure you read the “How To Construct A Renegade Vehicle” document. - Vehicle behavior is defined by the model for the vehicle and properties assigned to the vehicle in the Renegade level editor - Your 3D model controls things like the number of wheels, which wheels steer and which wheels output torque. - The level editor is used to define things like how fast your vehicle drives, how much health it has, and how stiff its suspension is. - For this presentation I’ll take a model of a Ford Explorer that I downloaded off the internet and set it up as a Renegade vehicle. - Once you’ve modeled your vehicle (or downloaded off the internet like I did), you can start to prepare it for actual use in Renegade. - An easy way to get the necessary bones is to merge them into your model from the “VehicleSkel.Max” file. Setting up the wheels- Renegade will create physics wheels for your vehicle by searching for transform nodes (or bones as some people call them) which certain names. - The contact point of each wheel is defined by a bone whose name begins with “WheelP” - The center of rotation for each wheel is defined by a bone whose name begins with WheelC” - Refer to the “How To” doc for a full explanation of these bones and the available parameters. - Wheel meshes that are attached to the WheelC bones will rotation and move to follow the terrain in the game. - Once you have all of your wheels set up, you make sure that in the top viewport, the vehicle is centered about the origin and the front of the vehicle is facing down the X axis. If your vehicle has more than 4 wheels, then you should position it so that the centroid of the wheel positions is at the origin. (Yeah yeah, we really should to write a little maxscript to do this for you) Setting up the vehicle for collision- In all renegade models, the user has control over which meshes are used for various kinds of collision detection. This is done by using the W3D Tools utility in 3dsmax to set the collision options for each of your meshes. - For physical movement, all Renegade vehicles are a single box. This box is called the “WorldBox” and must be present in your vehicle for it to function properly. - When the vehicle moves in the world and when other vehicles and characters move into the vehicle, this box is used to resolve the collision. - For bullets and other effects, the actual meshes in the vehicle may be used for collision. Turret- Vehicles may have a single turret which is defined by a set of bones. - The “Turret” bone will be rotated about its Z axis as the user moves his targeting cursor left and right. - The “Barrel” bone will be rotated up and down as the user moves his targeting cursor up and down. - One or more muzzle bones will be used as the actual creation point for the vehicle weapon’s projectile. - See the “How To” doc for an explanation of these bones Exporting your vehicle- Your vehicle should be exported with its wheels in their extreme highest position. - In this position, all of the contact points for your wheels (the WheelP bones) must be inside of your vehicle’s world-box. - An easy way to do this is to simply move the Max timeline to frame 1, click the animate button, and move all of your WheelP bones up until they are contained inside the world-box. Setting the vehicle up in the Editor- In the editor you need to create and name a new vehicle object. - Depending on what kind of vehicle you are creating, you should select WheeledVehicle, TrackedVehicle, or VTOLVehicle for your physics model type. - An easy way to get a head start on setting all of the parameters is to create your vehicle as a derivation of one of our vehicles. Simply select and existing vehicle before you hit the button to create your new one. - Next you need to set up the physics parameters, the game parameters, and the entry and exit transitions for the vehicle. - One pitfall to watch out for is that many of our vehicles have scripts which remove their enter transitions. Make sure you check the “Scripts” tab on your vehicle’s property page and delete any scripts that may be attached to it.
  4. By Greg Hjelstrom Creating a New Character ModelTo create a new character model for Renegade, you will want to make sure it is compatible with one of the animation sets that come with the game. In order to do this, you need to model your character on the same set of bones that we used to create our characters. Some gmax files can be found in the character examples directory that will allow you to do this. The file named “Male.gmax” contains the bones for a male character and the “Female.gmax” file contains the bones for a female character. These files contain several elements that are critical to creating a working character. The SkeletonBelow is a picture of the male template with everything except the bones hidden. Remember that for a W3D model, a bone is simply anything in the scene that has the “Export Transform” option enabled. For a character model, it is important that you observe the following limitations: - For the base pose (frame 0), never move or rotate any of these bones. You may animate them in max to test your character but never change them in the base pose. - You cannot create new bones or remove existing bones or your model will be incompatible with the animations in the game. This means that any meshes you add to the gmax file to create your character must have the “Export Transform” option disabled. Collision MeshesCharacters use two kinds of collision detection in Renegade. There is a single box in the character that is named “WorldBox” and is used to physically move the character around in the world. This object is flagged to be an AABox (axis-aligned-box) and has physical collision enabled on it. There are also a set of meshes attached to the skeleton that have projectile collision detection enabled. The names of these meshes tell the game engine how to scale the damage applied to a character when a bullet hits them. Below is a screenshot of the projectile collision meshes for the male character and their W3D settings: Notice that all of the projectile collision meshes are marked as hidden and they do not have “Export Transform” enabled. They are simply hierarchically connected to the bone they are supposed to move with. Modelling your characterTo create your character model, you can put any number of meshes or “skinned meshes” into the file. Typically, we used a skinned mesh for the body of each character and a skinned mesh for the head but there is nothing preventing you from using rigid meshes that are hierarchically linked to the bones (like the collision meshes are) to make a more robotic looking character. Characters may use any W3D material settings as well. Read the W3D documentation for more information on how to model and texture your character. Exporting Your CharacterWhen you export your character, you need to use the following export options: The key option here is the “Export Using Existing Skeleton” option. This tells the exporter to make your model use the existing S_A_Human.W3D skeleton (which will work as long as you did not move, add, or delete any bones in your gmax file). The S_A_Human.w3d file is for male characters and the S_B_Human.w3d file is for female characters. Exporting your character in this way ensures that the game will be able to play all of the character animations on your model.
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